The method of extracting oil from the formation can be divided into two categories: one is to use the energy of the formation itself to lift the crude oil, called the self-jetting oil production method; the other is because the formation itself is insufficient energy, must manually use the mechanical equipment To add energy to the wells in order to lift the crude oil to the ground, known as artificial lifting oil or mechanical oil extraction method. At present, the oil field manual lifting methods are mainly gas lift, rod pump oil and rodless pump oil.
There are rod pumps, including pumping units with rod pumps and ground-driven screw pumps (generally not used). Rodless pump oil, including electric submersible pumps, hydraulic piston pumps, jet pumps and so on. No matter what the lifting of oil production methods, due to oil field development program adjustment, equipment failure and other reasons, need to check (for) pump operation.
Check (change) pump
Pumping unit has a rod pump is the pumping unit of the reciprocating motion of the pump through the sucker rod to the pump, pump piston up and down the movement of the liquid out of the tank with the way, is currently the most widely used in a field of artificial Lifting the way, about the number of artificial lifting wells about 90%. It is mainly composed of pumping unit, pumping pump, sucker rod and supporting tools.
As the underground pump failure should be checked pump. The time interval between the two check pumps is called the pump cycle. The production of oil wells, oil pressure, oil temperature, air outlet, the sanding of the oil wells, the corrosion of crude oil, the management system of oil wells and many other factors will affect the length of the pump cycle.
► pumping wells due to the cause of the accident test pump generally have the following:
1, the oil well wax caused by the piston card, Velka, so that pumping pump can not work or tubing blocked.
2, sand card, sand blocking pump.
3, the withdrawal of the sucker rod caused by the pump.
4, the pumping rod caused by the fracture pump.
5, the pump wear loss is increasing, resulting in lower production fluid, pump efficiency is reduced, need to pump construction.
6, sucker rod and tubing partial wear, the tubing wear or coupling, rods wear, need to pump construction.
7, the oil level of the liquid surface changes, production changes, in order to find out the reasons, need to pump construction.
8, according to the requirements of the oil field development program, need to change the working system for the pump or need to deepen or mention the depth of the pump and so on.
9, other reasons: such as tubing tripping, cylinder tripping, bushing chaos, large pump disconnector off and so on caused by the pump construction.
Pump construction work mainly includes the following construction steps:
Construction, preparation, washing well, killing, from the sucker rod, from the column, scraping wax, through the well, sanding sand, sand, piping column, the next column, the lower pumping rod, The preparation of construction and so on.
Submersible pump operation
Submersible pump full name electric submersible centrifugal pump, referred to as electric pump, is the submersible motor and centrifugal pump into the oil tank below the level of oil pumping under the lifting equipment. Submersible pump is a multi-stage centrifugal pump working underground, with the tubing into the well, the ground power through the transformer, control cabinet and submersible cable to the power supply to the underground submersible motor, the motor drive multi-stage centrifugal pump rotation, Electric energy is converted to mechanical energy, the wells in the wells to rise to the ground. In recent years, domestic and foreign submersible pump lift technology developed rapidly in the oil field production, especially in the high water period, most of the crude oil is produced by submersible pump. Electric submersible pumps play an important role in the lifting technology of non-self-jetting high-production wells or high-water wells.
► Typical submersible electric pump system consists of three parts:
(1) the ground part: the ground part, including transformers, control cabinets, junction boxes and special wellhead devices.
(2) the middle part: the middle part of the main tubing and cable.
(3) underground parts: the underground part of the main multi-stage centrifugal pumps, oil and gas separator, submersible motor and protector.
The core of the above three parts is the centrifugal pump, oil and gas separator, submersible motor, protector, submersible cable, transformer and control cabinet seven parts.
Submarine Electric Pump Well System Composition
1-transformer; 2-control cabinet; 3-ammeter; 4-junction box; 5 - ground cable; 6 - wellhead device; 7 - round cable; 8 - drain valve; 9 - cable connector; 11 - flat cable; 12 - tubing; 13 - pump head; 14 - pump; 15 - cable guard; 16 - separator; 17 - protector; 18 - casing; 19 - submersible motor;