The development of oil and gas in China is a both new and old enterprise.It has become an important industrial sector China modern energy production, is a new China after the establishment of things, and Chinese before the discovery and use of oil and gas technology history can catch capsule to two thousand years, and in technology have created brilliant achievements.
China's modern oil industry sprouted in the middle of nineteenth Century, after many years of hard work, until the eve of the founding of new China, its foundation is still very weak. Looking back on this historical process will help us to understand the rise of China's oil industry.
We will introduce the development of China's petroleum industry in five parts. This article will involve the recovery and development of the oil industry.
After oilfield called Yumen liberated, Army on behalf of Kang Shien actively mobilize the masses of workers,getting the production recoveried and developmented . The oil workers, who had just been liberated, rushed into battle with their master's posture. In production and construction, known as "Holly" Captain Guo Menghe, repeated construction feats, is the outstanding representative of the older generation of oil workers. To create a new China's petroleum industry, in August 1952, President Mao Zedong ordered the China people's Liberation Army nineteenth army fifty-seventh division demobilized for the first division of petroleum engineering. To Mr. Zhang Fuzhen, political commissar Zhang Wenbin led the officers and become a vital force in the oil industry, for the construction of a strict organizational discipline, highly dedicated oil industries, has laid a good foundation. Several refineries in Northeast China in artificial materials, equipment, a serious lack of technicians, relying on technical personnel and old workers, only two and a half years, returned to Fushun, Huadian, Jinzhou and several other major artificial oil production.
After three years of recovery, by the end of 1952, the national crude oil production reached 435 thousand tons, up to 1949, the highest annual output of the old China, the times of 1.3 times. Of which 195 thousand and 400 tons of crude oil, accounting for crude oil production of 45%, synthetic oil of 240 thousand tons, accounting for 55%. Production of steam, coal, firewood, run four categories of oil products of 259 thousand tons, an increase of more than times more than in 1949. Yumen Oilfield Petroleum industry is the focus of the construction of the first five year plan period. In order to strengthen exploration, widely used in the "51" type seismograph and heavy drilling pressure, drilling and other new technology of large displacement ", has found oil ditch, Poplar River, Yaerxia oilfield. Laojunmiao oilfield also began to expand the oil-bearing area, and start the comprehensive development according to scientific procedures, take a series of downhole water injection and other measures. To 1959, Yumen Oilfield has built a geological, drilling, development, refining, mechanical, scientific research, education, the shape of the oil and gas industry base. Production of crude oil 1 million 405 thousand tons, accounting for the national crude oil production of 50.9%. Rich experience in Yumen Oilfield in development and construction, for the development of the present and future of the national petroleum industry, provides an important reference. Based on the development of their own, look at the country, where the oil will go to fight, the formation of the famous "Yumen style", for the development of the oil industry made an indelible contribution. Just as the famous poet Li Ji praises it: "the Soviet Union of Baku, a Chinese Yumen, where there is oil, there is yumen people".
In accordance with the deployment of the first five year plan, oil exploration in Northwest china. October 1955, Karamay's first well - G 1 well injection. At that time, some of the Soviet geological experts on the possibility of finding valuable oil fields, there have been different views. The Ministry of petroleum industry on the basis of the exploration experience and lessons on the front area; from the beginning of 1956, the adjustment of exploration deployment to concentrate in the Great Basin and platform for regional exploration, under the auspices of Comrade Kang Shien, the focus from the southern edge of Junggar basin Piedmont depression to the Northwest margin in the year, scored in certain area, soon found out the Karamay oil field, to achieve the first breakthrough of Petroleum Exploration on the new China after the establishment.
The development and construction of Karamay oilfield strongly supported the economic construction in the early days of the founding of new china. In 1958, the Qinghai Petroleum Exploration Bureau in the Ministry of geology found on the basis of the cold lake structural belt, in the cold lake 5 on the structure of the production of 800 tons of high-yield oil wells, and have proved the cold lake No. 5, No. 4, No. 3 oilfield. Found in Sichuan, Chongqing East, West Zigong, south area water natural gas syria. In 1958 the Ministry of oil organization Sichuan battle, found Nanchong、Guihua and some other 5 oil fields in the southwest end of osmanthus, ending the no oil in southwest area producing history.
By the end of 50s, the country has formed in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Yumen, Sichuan, 4 oil and gas base. 1959, the national crude oil production reached 3 million 733 thousand tons. One of the 4 bases of crude oil, 2 million 763 thousand tons of crude oil, accounting for the country's total crude oil production of 73.9%, Sichuan's natural gas production from 1957 to raise the amount of about 60000000 cubic meters to 250 million cubic meters.
In the artificial oil, after expansion and renovation, a substantial rise in the northeast of the artificial oil production. At the same time, also in Guangdong Maoming to build a large shale oil plant. Artificial oil production in 1959 reached 970 thousand tons, was a leading position in the world.Oil refining industry on the basis of very weak, has expanded, the new Shanghai, Karamay, cold lake, Lanzhou, Dalian and other 8 annual processing capacity of 10-100 million tons of oil refineries. 1959 production of steam, coal, firewood, run four categories of oil products of 2 million 349 thousand tons, the main oil self-sufficiency rate reached 40.6%.